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Veronica decides to carry out the heist, recruiting two of the other widows of Harry's gang, Alice and Linda. Alice has lost her livelihood and is pressured by her mother to become a sugar baby. Linda has lost her store, as her husband secretly gambled away the rent payments. The fourth widow, Amanda, does not join them, as Veronica discovers she has a 4-month-old baby. Alice acquires guns and a getaway van while Linda deciphers Harry's blueprints. Jamal's brother and right-hand man Jatemme attacks several witnesses and kills Bash while looking for Harry's notebook. Eventually, Alice uses a real estate executive, her sugar daddy, to identify the blueprint as the safe room in the Mulligan family mansion which also serves as Jack Mulligan's campaign headquarters.
For many women around the world, the devastating loss of a partner is magnified by a long-term fight for their basic rights and dignity. Despite the fact that there are more than 258 million widows around the world, widows have historically been left unseen, unsupported, and unmeasured in our societies.
Today, as armed conflicts, displacement and migration, and the COVID-19 pandemic leave tens of thousands of women newly widowed and many others whose partners are missing or disappeared, the unique experiences and needs of widows must be brought to the forefront, with their voices leading the way.
The United Nations observes 23 June as International Widows Day (resolution A/RES/65/189) since 2011, to draw attention to the voices and experiences of widows and to galvanize the unique support that they need.
Now more than ever, this day is an opportunity for action towards achieving full rights and recognition for widows. This includes providing them with information on access to a fair share of their inheritance, land and productive resources; pensions and social protection that are not based on marital status alone; decent work and equal pay; and education and training opportunities. Empowering widows to support themselves and their families also means addressing social stigmas that create exclusion, and discriminatory or harmful practices.
Programmes and policies for ending violence against widows and their children, poverty alleviation, education and other support to widows of all ages also need to be undertaken, including in the context of action plans to accelerate achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals.
As widows move through their own experiences of grief, loss, or trauma after the death of a spouse, they may also face economic insecurity, discrimination, stigmatization, and harmful traditional practices on the basis of their marital status.
Identification: Dark specimens resemble black widows. However, the hourglass of the brown widow is yellowish-orange or reddish-orange (Figure 8) instead of bright red as in the black widow. Also, the legs of black widows are solid black whereas at least some banding or lighter coloration is usually visible on the legs of even the darkest colored brown widows (Figure 7).
Habitat: Brown widows thrive in peridomestic habitats (Almeida et al. 2009, Edwards 2002, Smithers 1944, Vetter 2013) - e.g., under eaves of buildings, ledges of brick walls or top boards of wooden fences (Figure 10), under picnic tables, and among debris - often in well-lighted areas (McCrone and Stone 1965) and also in hollow trees and under loose bark. They tend to be found in more open areas than black widows (Vetter 2013). They are common on the University of Florida campus (Bibbs et al. 2013), and I have observed them at the football stadium, in the elevator shaft of the UF Health-Shands Hospital parking garage, and on campus buildings - where they are particularly common in the upper corners of windows (Figure 11).
Courtship and Mating: Female sex pheromones have been demonstrated on the webs of black widows and Australian redback widows, Latrodectus hasselti Thorell, (Baruffaldi and Andrade 2015). Ross and Smith (1979) reported the presence of both male and female sex pheromones on webs of western black widows. The pheromones may function in mate recognition. Also, well-fed females produce more silk and pheromone - possibly resulting in sexual selection by males for more fecund females (Baruffaldi and Andrade 2015). Sex pheromones have not yet been documented in other Latrodectus species.
Birds and lizards are probably the primary vertebrate predators of widow spiders (Baerg 1959, Maretić 1978). Because of the sheltered sites where they spin their webs, brown widows may escape detection by some potential vertebrate predators.
Chalybion species do not construct their own nests. They steal the sealed nests of other mud daubers (particularly those of Sceliphron caementarium (Drury) in the U.S.) by opening the cells of the previous owner and removing the original spider prey and mud dauber eggs or larvae (Rau 1928). They then re-provision the nests with their own prey and eggs. Although Baerg (1959) reported black widows from the nest cells of Sceliphron caementarium, it is possible that these were actually the prey of Chalybion mud daubers that had taken over the Sceliphron nests.
At least two microorganisms have been reported to infect brown widows. Arrington (2014) reported variable infection rates (20-90%) in different populations with Wolbachia pipientis Hertig and Wolbach. However, the Wolbachia infections did not appear to affect development or reproduction. Bibbs et al. (2013) isolated a strain of the fungus Mucor fragilis Bainier from brown widow females from north central Florida. In laboratory bioassays, the fungus produced 83% mortality rates.
Only female brown widows are capable of biting vertebrates. The chelicerae and fangs of the males are too small to bite vertebrates (Bettini and Maroli 1978). Those of the female are larger (Figure 15) and the fangs are able to penetrate vertebrate skin by working in a horizontal pinching motion. The venom is injected through the hollow tips of the fangs.
Female brown widows are not aggressive and will usually withdraw to their retreats rather than attack when their web is disturbed (Goddard et al. 2008). If the retreat area of the web is disturbed, the spiders usually drop to the ground, retract their legs, and feign death (Figure 23) (a behavior known as thanatosis) (Muslimin et al. 2015, DW Hall personal observation). This behavior not only helps them escape predators but also reduces the likelihood of them biting humans. Most bites occur when the spiders are accidently trapped against the skin. Therefore, brown widow bites are not common considering the relatively large numbers of spiders present in some areas.
Venom: Like the venoms of other widow spiders (genus Latrodectus), brown widow venom is toxic to vertebrates, but is generally considered to be less toxic than that of other widow spiders (Garb and Hayashi 2013, Guimarães et al. 2012, Heeres 1991, Müller et al. 1989, Müller 1993a, Sampayo 1943). The relative toxicity of the widow spiders may depend on the species of animal. For example, Sampayo (1943) stated that brown widow venom is much less toxic to guinea pigs than is black widow venom. However, McCrone (1964) reported that brown widow venom is more toxic than black widow venom in mice, and Guerrero et al. (2010) stated that based on their studies with mice, brown widow venom appears to be one of the most toxic Latrodectus venoms. An important factor in cases of human envenomation is that brown widows inject smaller quantities of venom than other Latrodectus species (Goddard et al. 2008, McCrone 1964). This may be due to the smaller size of their venom glands (Maretić and Lebez 1979).
If you know what the widow or widowers benefit is at full retirement age, you can use the information for the survivor's year of birth to find out how much the widows or widowers benefit would be at various ages.
Champagne tourism arose under the guise of the widows. Whereas most Champagne-makers built chateaux after achieving success in business, Pommery did the opposite, building an estate as a means of attracting success.
She took over the Bollinger Champagne house in 1941 when Jacques Bollinger, her husband and the owner of the brand, passed. At the time, women's rights to business ownership were still restricted (it wasn't until 1965 that women were granted full rights to employment, banking and asset management without permission) though widows were still able to circumvent the rules.
As widows helping widows, we offer in-person and virtual support groups, clubs and activities, travel opportunities, educational courses, mentoring programs, conferences, videos, podcasts, opportunities for advocacy and philanthropy, and more.
In typography terms, a widow is the last line of a paragraph that is left alone on a new page or in a new column. The widows property in CSS controls the minimum number of lines of a paragraph that can fall to a new page. This property only affects paged media such as print.
Note that the widows property does not generally affect non-paged media such as screen. However, browsers supporting both widows and columns will apply the intended functionality to columns as well. Also, the property only affects block-level elements.
The results were dramatic: Brown widows were 6.6 times more likely to attack black widows than the other spiders. Young brown widows were particularly aggressive toward their cousins, killing and eating young black widows 80 percent of the time. In pairings of adults, black widows were eaten in 40 percent of the trials, while they defensively killed brown widows 30 percent of the time. The research team published the results this month in Annals of the Entomological Society of America.
Coticchio, who spent the first part of his career as a zookeeper specializing in venomous animals in California before returning to Florida to earn a degree in biology, began collecting wild spiders in Florida for a research project. In doing so, he noticed brown widows displacing black widows but not other related species. 59ce067264